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Rotation Exam Qbanks & PANCE Bundle (Save $106)

PA Student - Clinical Year

Questions

Aligned with the PAEA and NCCPA formats and updated blueprints. Authored & peer-reviewed by PA-Cs who excelled on their rotation exams and the PANCE.

Each question is written to resemble the format and topics on the exam, meaning you won’t see any negatively phrased questions, no “all of the following except,” no “A and B”…you know what we mean. Most importantly, all questions include selective distractors (incorrect answer choices), which will help you think critically.

  • Must address important content
  • Must be well structured

Question

A 66-year-old woman presents with a sensation of pulsation in her neck and abdomen. The patient reports she has also had progressively worsening dyspnea on exertion and peripheral edema that began 2 months ago. She had a pacemaker placement 9 months ago for a chronic bifascicular block. Physical exam is significant for distended, pulsatile neck veins, hepatomegaly, and 1+ generalized pitting edema. Palpation of the liver results in increased distension of the neck veins. Which of the following findings on physical exam would most likely correlate with the patient’s condition?
A Harsh midsystolic crescendo-decrescendo murmur radiating to the left shoulder
B Loud midsystolic murmur best heard with the patient sitting and leaning forward
C Pansystolic murmur that becomes louder with inspiration
D Pansystolic murmur with prolonged apical impulse
Correct Answer Distractors
Tricuspid regurgitation is a valvular disorder that occurs when there is retrograde blood flow from the right ventricle to the right atrium during systole. The underlying pathophysiology is a right-sided pressure overload leading to right-sided heart failure. Common causes of tricuspid regurgitation include congenital abnormalities of the tricuspid valve, structural abnormalities resulting from infection, and chronic pulmonary hypertension. Pacemaker lead placement is an increasingly common iatrogenic cause of tricuspid regurgitation. As tricuspid regurgitation persists, right-sided cardiomegaly, systemic venous congestion, and eventually right-sided heart failure ensue. Signs of severe tricuspid regurgitation are associated with systemic venous congestion and include distended, pulsating neck veins, a pulsatile enlarged liver, and anasarca. On cardiac auscultation, tricuspid regurgitation is a pansystolic murmur that becomes louder with inspiration and reduced with expiration or Valsalva maneuver. It is best heard at the left lower sternal border and radiates to the right lower sternal border. Chest radiography may show an enlarged right heart border. ECG findings include right-axis deviation, P wave changes indicating right atrial enlargement, and R and S wave changes indicating right ventricular hypertrophy. Definitive diagnostic methods for tricuspid regurgitation include echocardiography and cardiac catheterization. Valvular regurgitations are classified as mild, moderate, or severe based on a variety of measurements obtained from diagnostic measures. Since most cases of tricuspid regurgitation are secondary, treatment of the underlying cause should be considered first. Patients with mild or moderate tricuspid regurgitation may be managed with oral diuretics (e.g., furosemide). Moderate tricuspid regurgitation warrants a cardiology consult. Severe tricuspid regurgitation may require IV diuretics such as torsemide. Spironolactone may be used if ascites is present along with severe tricuspid regurgitation. Severe cases require regular monitoring by a cardiologist. Valvular repair may be indicated in patients with tricuspid valve endocarditis. Patients with refractory symptoms due to inherent defects may need a tricuspid valve replacement.

Explanations

Written with a purpose

Understanding why an answer choice is incorrect is just as important as knowing why one is correct. That’s why every Rosh Review question includes detailed explanations for the correct and incorrect answer choices. These comprehensive summaries link the most important components of a topic—from risk factors to diagnostics and treatment—giving you the context to build relationships between them.

  • Created for optimal learning and recall
  • Help reinforce your knowledge
  • Focus on the essential information

Illustrations

Created to enhance learning

Custom illustrations and tables help further clarify the core concepts. When information is presented visually, you can focus on meaning, easily reorganize and group similar ideas, and make better use of your memory.

Powerful Analytics

Track progress, performance, & predictions

Your personal analytics allow you to see your progress at all times, so you can create an efficient and effective learning strategy and stay on pace with your plan.

Focus your learning

Deep insights to determine your strengths and weaknesses so you can spend your time on the subjects that matter

Compare with your peers

Discover how your answer choices align with those selected by learners across the country.

Find out your probability of passing

Using data generated by previous users, your Qbank gives a prediction of how likely you are to pass your exam.

One Step Further

Taking your learning to the next level

After each explanation is a straightforward question with a simple, memorizable answer that reinforces the corresponding topic.

  • Strengthens your knowledge
  • Stands alone from the main explanation so you’re not rereading content

Question

What is the Carvallo sign?

Reveal Answer

Tricuspid Regurgitation

  • Causes: tricuspid ring stretching > pulmonary HTN, endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease
  • Pansystolic murmur at left (or right) sternal border
  • JVP: giant c-v wave
  • Atrial fibrillation

Rapid Review

Keeping things simple

These bulleted reviews focus on condensed, high-yield concepts about the main topic, from patient presentation to preferred management.

  • Cover the fundamentals in one list
  • Allow you to quickly scan the must-know information

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