Pre-PA Student Boot Camp Qbank
Learn the Anatomy Basics
Which of the following anatomical planes divides the body into superior and inferior parts?
A. Frontal plane
B. Median plane
C. Sagittal plane
D. Transverse plane
Anatomical descriptions rely on four imaginary planes that intersect the body in the anatomical position. The imaginary lines include the median plane, sagittal planes, frontal planes, and transverse planes. The median plane is a type of sagittal plane that passes longitudinally through the center of the body and divides it into right and left halves. There is only one median plane, while there are many sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes. Sagittal planes are oriented vertically and are parallel to the median plane. Frontal (coronal) planes are vertically-oriented planes that pass through the body at right angles to the sagittal planes. They divide the body into anterior and posterior parts. Transverse planes are horizontal planes that divide the body into superior and inferior parts
Get Ahead with Advanced Anatomy
At which vertebral level does the trachea bifurcate?
The trachea (windpipe) is part of the respiratory system. It is a fibrocartilaginous tube that is approximately 4 inches long and is surrounded by incomplete cartilage rings. The trachea begins at the inferior end of the larynx and ends at the sternal angle (located at T4–T5 vertebral level), where it divides into the right and left main bronchi. The rings around the trachea are incomplete at the posterior aspect where the trachealis muscle runs. The trachea is anterior to the esophagus, and the common carotid arteries run lateral to the trachea.
Build Your Physiology Foundation
Which of the following are the two locations of baroreceptors?
A. Aortic arch and common iliac artery
B. Brachiocephalic trunk and common iliac artery
C. Carotid sinus and aortic arch
D. Carotid sinus and brachiocephalic trunk
Baroreceptors are mechanoreceptors (sense pressure changes) that attempt to maintain a constant arterial pressure. They are fast acting and neurally mediated. The baroreceptors are located in the carotid sinus and aortic arch. Baroreceptors exert their effect by changing sympathetic and parasympathetic output. They sense changes in pressure and send signals to the vasomotor centers in the brainstem. In response, the brainstem alters autonomic (parasympathetic and sympathetic) output, which attempts to maintain a normal arterial pressure. The afferent receptors from the carotid sinus travel by the glossopharyngeal nerve to the brainstem, while the afferent receptors from the aortic arch travel by the vagus nerve to the brainstem. The autonomic nervous system can cause changes in arterial pressure by altering heart rate, heart contractility, and arterial or venous vasoconstriction.
Get Comfortable with Medical Terminology
Which of the following is the term for a burning sensation that is usually felt in the hands, arms, feet, or legs?
D. Peripheral neuropathy
Paresthesia (par– means disordered, esthes– means sensation, and -ia means condition) refers to a burning or pins and needles sensation that is typically felt in the hands, arms, feet, or legs.
Causalgia (A) (caus- means burning, and -algia means pain) refers to a persistent and severe burning pain that usually occurs after an injury to a sensory nerve. Hyperesthesia (B) (hyper- means excessive, esthes- means sensation, and -ia means condition) refers to a condition characterized by excessive sensitivity to touch, pain, or other sensory stimuli. Peripheral neuropathy (D) (neuro- means nerve, and -pathy means disease) is a disorder of the peripheral nerves that carry information to and from the brain and spinal cord. It produces pain, loss of sensation, and inability to control muscles
Clinicians who employ evidence-based disease management approaches for their patients realize that appraisal of the evidence requires the reader to evaluate the level of evidence as well as the number of studies available that have examined the specific clinical issue of concern. Which of the following research designs is considered the highest level of evidence when determining cause and effect relationships?
A. Case control
D. Randomized control trial
A randomized controlled trial is a study design that uses a random process to assign participants to either an experimental or control group. This type of study is considered level I evidence if there are three or more studies available or level II evidence if the evidence is based on one well designed study. A randomized controlled trial is well suited to answer a research question focused on the diagnosis and treatment of conditions.
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