Aligned with the American Board of Internal Medicine format. Authored & peer-reviewed by faculty, clinicians, and program directors.
Each question is written to resemble the format and topics on the exam, meaning you won’t see any negatively phrased questions, no “all of the following except,” no “A and B”…you know what we mean. Most importantly, all questions include selective distractors (incorrect answer choices), which will help you think critically.
A 50-year-old man presents to his primary care physician with intermittent episodes of tachycardia, hypertension, sweats, and headache. An extensive workup reveals increased 24-hour urinary fractionated metanephrines. A 3 cm adrenal mass consistent with a pheochromocytoma without malignant features is visualized on CT scan. After surgical consultation, a laparoscopic adrenalectomy is planned in 10 days. He has no significant past medical history and does not take any medications. Which of the following is the most appropriate next step in management?
The most appropriate next step is to initiate phenoxybenzamine now and metoprolol 3 days prior to surgery. A pheochromocytoma is a neuroendocrine tumor originating from the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Pheochromocytomas are rare tumors that can arise sporadically from a de novo mutation or can be associated with a familial syndrome, such as von Hippel-Lindau syndrome or multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. Pheochromocytomas produce at least one catecholamine (epinephrine, norepinephrine, or dopamine). Classic presentation involves intermittent tachycardia, sweats, headaches, and episodic or persistent hypertension. Radiologic evaluation with CT or MRI should be performed in patients whose biochemical testing with either plasma metanephrines or 24-hour urinary metanephrines is indicative of a pheochromocytoma. Patients with pheochromocytomas should undergo surgical resection, with laparoscopic adrenalectomy preferred for patients with single, small intra-adrenal tumors without malignant features. Preoperative medical therapy is necessary to manage tachycardia and hypertension (preventing a hypertensive crisis in surgery) and to expand volume prior to surgery. An alpha-adrenergic blocker, such as phenoxybenzamine, is recommended for 7–10 days prior to surgery. A beta-blocker, such as metoprolol, is started 2–3 days prior to surgery, but only after alpha-adrenergic blockade has been established to prevent unopposed alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
Initiate both metoprolol and phenoxybenzamine now (A), initiate metoprolol now and phenoxybenzamine 3 days prior to surgery (B), and no medication therapy is necessary (D) are incorrect. This patient requires medical therapy prior to surgery. Preoperative beta-blockers should not be administered until alpha-adrenergic blockade has been achieved. Worsening hypertension can develop if vasodilatory peripheral beta-adrenergic receptors are blocked while there is unopposed alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation.
Understanding why an answer choice is incorrect is just as important as knowing why one is correct. That’s why every Rosh Review question includes detailed explanations for the correct and incorrect answer choices. These comprehensive summaries link the most important components of a topic—from risk factors to diagnostics and treatment—giving you the context to build relationships between them.
Custom illustrations and tables help further clarify the core concepts. When information is presented visually, you can focus on meaning, easily reorganize and group similar ideas, and make better use of your memory.
Your personal analytics allow you to see your progress at all times, so you can create an efficient and effective learning strategy and stay on pace with your plan.
Deep insights to determine your strengths and weaknesses so you can spend your time on the subjects that matter.
Discover how your answer choices align with those selected by learners across the country.
Using data generated by previous users, your Qbank gives a prediction of how likely you are to pass your exam.
After each explanation is a straightforward question with a simple, memorizable answer that reinforces the corresponding topic.
Q: What are metanephrines?Reveal Answer
A: Metabolic products from catecholamine breakdown (metanephrine and normetanephrine).
These bulleted reviews focus on condensed, high-yield concepts about the main topic, from patient presentation to preferred management.